How to Arrange Guitar Effects Pedals

by Dan Kern on August 9, 2009

What Order to Place Guitar Effects Pedals InGuitar effects pedal placement has long been the bane of gearheads’ existence, or the fun of it..depending on how you view it. This article makes sense of the options, leading to more educated experimenting and final decision making…yeah right!

A common first approach to arranging guitar effects is outlined clearly by Robert Keeley (as originally published in Mix Magazine), maker of the famous Keeley Compressor. Let’s take a look at what he had to say…

Ask yourself this when you wonder about effects order or placement: Which Chain Of Effect Pedals Makes Life Easy? All you have to do is remember this phase and which letter corresponds to which type of effect.

Wah -> Which, Compressor ->Chain, Overdrive -> Of, EQ -> Effect, Pitch -> Pedals, Modulation -> Make, Level -> Life, Echo -> Easy.

I like to see wah pedals and sometimes even phasers as the first effect after the guitar. We’ll call these Wah effects (yes even the phaser). Wah pedals boost a frequency you sweep to with your foot and phasers cut or notch a frequency that is swept to electronically. Distortion pedals make interesting response changes to the boost or cut from these sweep pedals.

Compressors typically go next although I like them after distortion pedals in many cases if the compressor is clean and transparent enough. Compression after distortion has two effects that I really like:

* The noise floor is lower because the noise from a compressor isn’t being amplified and distorted by the overdrive pedal.
* There appears to be more sustain. There is one draw back that some people notice and that is a darker, warmer tone. Some folks might prefer a more conventional, brighter tone.

Next comes Overdrive or distortion. Equalizer pedals can go next. They are commonly used for a boost pedal if they can be turned on and off, or used to shape the tone of the distortion pedal. Pitch changing pedals, Vibrato for example; go next for the simple reason that many distortion pedals can’t handle the many pitches at one time. Try strumming a complex chord with your distortion pedal on, say a C7#9#11.

Modulation effects such as chorus and flanging go next. Level pedals (that control the volume) then go next in many cases. This would include tremolo, volume pedals (great at this point in the effects chain because it cuts all the hiss going to your amp), noise gates and limiters. Since compression is a limiter in many cases and this is why it works post-distortion by the way. Echo effects go last. These include delay and reverb. A sample effects board might contain these effects: Guitar -> Wah, Compressor, Overdrive, EQ, Vibrato, Chorus, Tremolo, Volume Pedal, and Delay-> Amp.

…original content has been edited for this article, source: RobertKeeley.com.

The above approach is a great way to start thinking about guitar effects placement. However, there are other options, depending on how your specific guitar effects “play together.” Let’s start at the beginning, and analyze your options:

Wah Pedal PlacementWah Pedal Placement

  • Before or after a fuzz pedal – Placing a wah before a fuzz pedal will provide darker tone, yet still dynamic and with body. Placing a wah after a fuzz pedal will provide brighter, yet sometimes thinner fuzz tone. Most wah pedals cannot be placed in front of a fuzz pedal without farting out. To solve this, guitarists use a fuzz friendly wah (like the one made by Real McCoy Custom).
  • Before or after an overdrive pedal – Placing a wah before an overdrive pedal will provide a brighter, snappier, more quacky wah/overdrive combo. Great if you want your tone to jump off the stage & stand out. Placing a wah after an overdrive will make your wah/overdrive more mellow & sit in the mix more evenly.
  • Before or after a compressor pedal - Placing a wah before a compressor will help to even out the dynamics of your specific wah, and match its overall volume closer to the output of the compressor (whether the wah is on or off). This can be helpful for creating a better mix, but some guitarists won’t like the loss of dynamics. Placing a wah after a compressor will provide even dynamics going into the wah, yet retain more of the dynamics of your wah.

Compressor Pedal PlacementCompressor Pedal Placement

  • Before or after an overdrive pedal – Placing a compressor before an overdrive pedal is going to even out the dynamics going into the overdrive, providing a smoother saturation tone. Placing a compressor after an overdrive pedal will allow the overdrive pedal react to your playing more like if you weren’t using the compressor pedal. With this placement, the compressor evens out the overdrive’s output, helping to level out volume spikes. This placement was made popular by Trey Anastasio of Phish.
  • Before or after a fuzz pedal – Placing a compressor before or after a fuzz pedal can often provide similar results as with an overdrive. Notice how the fuzz retains its punchy tone if you place the compressor after the fuzz pedal. Be careful with placing noisy fuzz pedals before compressors, as most compressors will amplify the noise.
  • Before or after a wah pedalAs already stated…Placing a wah before a compressor will help to even out the dynamics of your specific wah, and match its overall volume closer to the output of the compressor (whether the wah is on or off). This can be helpful for creating a better mix, but some guitarists won’t like the loss of dynamics. Placing a wah after a compressor will provide even dynamics going into the wah, yet retain more of the dynamics of your wah.

Overdrive Pedal PlacementOverdrive/Distortion Pedal Placement

  • Placing Overdrive before or after Distortion – The placement of overdrive and distortion effects in relation to one another is highly subjective. Many guitarists place their “dirt” pedals in order of their gain level settings. For example, you may choose to place an overdrive pedal with a mild gain setting in front of a distortion pedal that has a higher gain setting. However, try reversing the two & see how it sounds to you. You might also like to “goose” the input of one dirt pedal with another by increasing the first pedal’s volume and/or gain. Note: A compressor is also a common tool to use in this application.
  • Before or after a fuzz pedal - Placing an overdrive before a fuzz pedal, and playing the two combined, will allow you to saturate your fuzz sound more so than just using the fuzz alone. The tonal character will still be closer to that of the fuzz pedal, but with more saturation. Placing an overdrive after a fuzz pedal will allow your overdrive tones to sound bigger & fuzzier. This can be a great wooly lead tone & is very amp-like.
  • Before or after a compressor pedal - As already stated…Placing a compressor before an overdrive pedal is going to even out the dynamics going into the overdrive, providing a smoother saturation tone. Placing a compressor after an overdrive pedal will allow the overdrive pedal react to your playing more like if you weren’t using the compressor pedal. The compressor then evens out the output of the overdrive, helping to level out volume spikes. This placement was made popular by Trey Anastasio of Phish.
  • Before or after a wah pedal - As already stated…Placing a wah before an overdrive pedal will provide a brighter, snappier, more quacky wah/overdrive combo. Great if you want your tone to jump off the stage & stand out. Placing a wah after an overdrive will make your wah/overdrive more mellow & sit in the mix more evenly.

Fuzz Pedal PlacementFuzz Pedal Placement

  • Before or after an overdrive pedalAs already stated…Placing an overdrive before a fuzz pedal, and playing the two combined, will allow you to saturate your fuzz sound more so than just using the fuzz alone. The tonal character will still be closer to that of the fuzz pedal, but with more saturation. Placing an overdrive after a fuzz pedal will allow your overdrive tones to sound bigger & fuzzier. This can be a great wooly lead tone & is very amp-like.
  • Before or after a compressorAs already stated…Placing a compressor before or after a fuzz pedal is going to provide similar results as with an overdrive. Notice how the fuzz retains its punchy-ness if you place the compressor afterward. Be careful with placing noisy fuzz pedals before compressors, as most compressors will amplify the noise.
  • Before or after a wahAs already stated…Placing a wah before a fuzz pedal will provide darker tone, yet still dynamic and with body. Placing a wah after a fuzz pedal will provide brighter, yet sometimes thinner fuzz tone. Most wah pedals cannot be placed in front of a fuzz pedal without farting out. To solve this, guitarists use a fuzz friendly wah (like the one made by Real McCoy Custom).
  • Octave Fuzz Pedals – While octave fuzz pedals can be considered pitch shifters, they mostly act like fuzz pedals and are usually placed at the front of your signal chain. Experiment with placing an octavia just before or after your fuzz or overdrive pedal. Placing an octavia before a fuzz/overdrive/distortion pedal is a very common placement.

EQ Pedal PlacementEQ Pedal Placement

  • Equalizer (EQ) pedals are like swiss army knives. They provide a tone shaping tool based on need. Common uses of EQ pedals are to place them before or after other dirt pedals (overdrive & fuzz mainly) in order to change the tonal character of dirt tone, when turning the EQ pedal on. For example, scooping the mids on an EQ pedal will help take a typical tubescreamer clone from a lead tone to a rhythm tone. Placing the EQ before or after the dirt pedal will simulate Pre-EQ or Post-EQ techniques commonly used with an overdriven amplifier.

 

Modulation Pedal PlacementModulation Effect Placement

  • Most modulation pedals (Phasers, Flangers, Chorus, Univibe, etc.) sit nicely in your chain towards the end, but before level, delay & reverb effects. However, as Robert Keeley mentions, try using a phaser before fuzz, overdrive & distortion. You’ll notice a more dramatic effect when the phaser & fuzz/overdrive are used together. This also works well with univibes, to get a more chewy tone.

 

Whammy Pedal PlacementPitch Shifter Effect Placement

  • Pitch Shifter Effect Placement (Harmonizers, Whammy pedals, etc.) – Pitch shifting pedals typically like to receive a clean, unaffected, & less dynamic signal, in order to work their best. So, placing a compressor before a pitch shifter is a good idea. Dirt pedals (fuzz, overdrive, distortion) have a hard time handling multiple pitches at once. The tone tends to turn to mush. With this in mind, it’s most common to place a pitch shifter after a dirt pedal (fuzz, overdrive, distortion). On the other hand, placing a Digitech Whammy pedal before an overdrive seems to work. Your mileage may vary.

 

Volume Pedal PlacementLevel Effect Placement

  • Volume controlling pedals, such as tremolo & volume pedals, are best placed toward the end of the signal chain.

 

 

 

 

Delay Pedal PlacementDelay Pedal Placement

  • Delay pedals are like reverb in that they simulate an environment’s response to your guitar sound. Thus, the most natural place for them is at the end of your chain. However, placing a delay pedal before a modulation pedal will provide densely modulated delays, which can be a cool effect.

 

 

 

Reverb Pedal PlacementReverb Effect Placement

  • Reverb is best placed at the very end of your signal chain, especially after your dirt tones (overdrive, fuzz & distortion). Thus, if you use distortion generated from an amplifier, and your amp doesn’t have reverb, then it’s best to put a reverb effect in the effects loop of your amp. Try placing your volume pedal just before the reverb pedal so the reverb decays naturally when turning the volume pedal down.

Summary: How to Arrange Guitar Pedals

How to arrange  guitar effects is up to you. None of these suggestions (listed above) would have been realized without experimentation, so experiment to find your own pedal board arrangement. There is no wrong way, only your way.

How to Arrange Guitar Effects Pedals by

{ 16 comments… read them below or add one }

darkhorse February 22, 2010 at 10:49 pm

The reason a Whammy works in front of a distortion is because you are creating only one harmonic overtone. I do not see how a pitch shifter can work well with a dirty signal. Having tried it, recommended by some it left me wondering it was either a joke or just stoner nuts.

The Whammy does not work well on harmonzer mode with dirt. Some claim harmonizers after dist but I have yet to see an example of how this might sound correct.

I find all trigger pedals require a clean up front signal as close to the dynamics of the guitar as possible and in front of any compressor.

I have decades of experience with pedal chains and boards, here is the optimum list with workable acceptable options.

Filter triggers, auto-wahs, envelope followers/filters

Whammy pedal

Wah (can be placed after dist but really does not sound as good as the moving band pass filter works to manipulate the tone of the distortion. Hendrix is an up front tone, Many guitarists have used a fixed wah to color their distortions ebem amp gained dist. this is also in front. Trower seems to get a killer tone -after OD, yet he breaks a lot of rules and seems to make it work, try doing what he does and I’ll bet you find it is unmanageable, aka an OCD or RTO on full volume using the guitar to control the level !)

Compressor

Overdrive (I use an OD before and after my heavier dist pedal to get all options and advantages of each)

Distortion (compressor after distortion, sounds like a good theory, again try it, I am not stoned enough to think it sounds right.)

Overdrive (option, before and after both have their uses, two overdrives without a dist box is also very useful)

Wah (option)

Ideally all modulation units like chorus/flange/phaser, delay and reverb work best in the amp loop. If you do not have a loop then you are forced to use amp in. Problems with amp in, is that you get a good tone set up on a clean robust channel and when you which to high gain your modulators are in front of distortion (preamp) and this just sounds liek crapola, period. It reduces the bandwidth and headroom sweep of the units, craps the echo and is a really stupid way to do reverb. Solution: if no amp loop, keep all modulator pedals OFF on high amp gain channels.

Proper order of modulators:
Chorus – Flange – Phaser – Delays – Reverbs
(Option: Univibe can be used on amp-in with dist, gets a low fi warble Trower gets but he does not gain his preamps that heavy, the more dist the more it sounds like crap)

(I have seen a dual pedal with delay before Chorus, it just does not really sound as good. I use the Liquid Chorus and it sounds better into my Gigadelay than vise-versa)

It is not always try and it and see or a matter of taste, there are rules of sonic and sound engineering, there is a better sound and although some might think a bad sound is cool or unique, it is more akin to slitting your speaker grill with a razor to get a fuzz tone, like in the early 60s)

darkhorse April 5, 2010 at 7:17 pm

Another problem is the Phaser before or after gain boxes then problems of interaction with compressors and other effects. I have heard phasers sound good in front or after gain and in a loop. Hard to decide. General rule is that the loop will provide a greater bandwidth sweep and higher fidelity but….that may not be the desired result.

No one can argue what EVH did with a Phase 90 into a driven Marshall. And, I have heard phasers in front of gain boxes sound similar. When one looks at multi-effects processors one always finds the compressor first in the chain and the phaser back near the mid end with the other modulators.

I guess right there, in itself, is the advantage of separate boxes and the options at hand. By the way, changed my order of auto wah, synth wah after the Whammy, Whammy is first in chain for the best signal before compressor. Works very well. My line is currently:

Digitech Whammy
Digitech Synth Wah
Morely Vai II Contour Wah
Visual Sound Route 66 (comp& OD)
Visual Sound Jekyl&Hyde (dist & OD)
Amp in>>>>(modified Carvin V3 tube head w Carvin vintage load 4×12 )

Loop>>
Visual Sound Liquid Chorus
Boss DD-20 Gigadelay
Carvin (rackmount) FX-2 (set for light and deep reverb on dual unit)
BBE Sonicmaximizer (rackmount)
Loop return>>>>>>>>

Noise reduction is on set at min on Route 66 comp. Noise reduction (internal switch) off on J&H
All Power Furman Power Conditioner Filter
BBE Supra-Charger all 200 and <mA effects.
Two special 300mA power supplies for the Morely Wah and the Whammy

Super quiet system, no noise floor, no signal cap load or loss from the super quality Visual Sound line buffer amp bypass and the Morely line driver circuits.

darkhorse June 26, 2010 at 1:54 am

Made a goof on Trower’s pedal line. His wah is before gains.
He runs his Vibe 1st into a tuner, a wah, then into his OD or gains.
Fuller recommeneds the Vibe before gains.
Hendrix used it last going into his amp (wah, fuzz face, vibe) but his Marshall was pretty cranked and gave it a killer tone (witness “Hey Baby, New Rising Sun).
Satriani uses his vibe before his 2 VOX DS units and apparently uses it with the less gained one, the high gainer is for leads.
He also uses a fullsize POG, and a mini POD both up front before gains, his wah is 1st in chain. Delays are sent to a dry am rigged in the loop I believe. He now uses two VOX JS timemachine delays dropping the Boss pedals.
I have gotten great sounds out of Vibes in the loop and phasers, most seem to like them before gains.. I guess if Satch runs it up front and the Vibe God Trower there has to be something to it.

One guy explained it well once, that before gains is bigger dist tone after is bigger vibe or phase. A chorus belongs after or best in a loop for my tases. I really do not believe it all does not matter, everything matters when in search of the monster tone!

I recommend to anyone that they power their tuner off a dry or direct out from any box, preferably up front and get the box out of the chain line. It does not need to pass your signal just get one. It can be anywhere if you have a spare output jack as everything is off during tuning anyway.

Hard by-pass does not save you from signal loading or cap build up, you need a good buffer pedal in your chain for the best fidelity. Bradshaw and the other first pedal baord builders knew a good buffer amp circuit was better than just hard wire by-pass. It’s just physics. Having all true by-pass does NOT prevent signal degrade! A bad buffer can suck tone like the little unmodifed Boss pedals. Visual Sound and Morely make good buffer amp circuits. Lovepedal and some others make just a buffer box w no controls, really nice.

darkhorse July 27, 2010 at 6:28 am

Always revisting this subject and trying out recommendations and ideas, I am always open to better tones. I’ve changed my entire board recently and still hold to some basic notions on pedal placement.
Morely Vai II wah
Digitech Whammy (new v)
Digitech Synth Wah (great little envelop box)
Fulltone Fat Boost 3
Fulltone OCD (new 1.4v)
Vox JS DS Sachurator (a very unique sounding gainer)
Rocktron Metal Planet (really like this pedal Rocktron does not get enough kudos for great pedals!)

Loop:
Carvin FX-2 24 bit dual processor for delays (not a bad unit, very musical delays, will replace it in time with the Vox Timemachien I like a lot)
Lovepedal pickle Vibe (more a phase tweak than a real vibe, will do until I get a Fulltone or a Ubervibe)
Digotech Hardwire RV-7 Reverb (great unit, Lexicon reverbs)

recommended wll not fail chain order——–
Wahs
Envelop trigger effects
Whammy
Compressors (never use these anymore, I consider comps and a chorus moreso for cleaner playing and big pretty chords)
ODs
Dist
EQ

I like all modulation effects in the loop:
Phaser, Vibe, Flanger, Chorus, Delays, Reverbs, Sonic mazimizer
(options are placing Phaser, Vibe or Flange before gain boxes at amp in, works for some apparently, not for me. Greater bandwidth in the loop.) If you do not have a loop follow this same order, but amp- in is greatly diminished quality over the loop. You could also put your vol pedal or EQ pedal last in amp-in or in a loop.

Still do not agree on pitch shifters or harmonizer effects after gains or ODs. The issue is simple here, usually one is just creating a relatively simple harmony of an 8va, a 4th or a 5th and these sound incredibly good going into any quality OD or Dist unit. Of course you cannot play a highly figured interval chord structure through gain but you are not doing this with a pitch shifter/harmonizer either. Digitech recommends the Whammy up front and I use it more for harmonizer effects, Satriani uses both the mini POG and std POD before his gains.

Another option is the wah which can be uses before or after gains, I have even tried one in the loop, it works anywhere but I think one will find up front before anything is a better result. Satriani’s 1st pedal is his Wah.

Another is the Vibe or Univibe pedal, many use them before OD or Dist, try as I might I still get a better bolder more bandwidth vibrant effect in the loop. Both Satch and Trower run their Vibe into gains or OD, Trower has his Vibe 1st in chain w the wah after. No arguing they get great sounds, but two points here, I do not think Trower’s new sounds are as dynamic and bold as the old tunes and it is not the equipment just the use or order of them. Satch and his Vibe also sounds good but one is hard pressed to name a specific tune of his that one can say now there is a Vibe tone.

Bottom line Phase, Vibe, Flange before OD or dirt = big OD or Dirt, after = big phase, vibe or flange. Running before works for some but not for me. No one can tell me you can run a chorus or delay before gains and that sounds good.

Bob Feller January 16, 2012 at 3:05 pm

Thank you very much for this information. This validated SOME of what I knew, taught me a few important things, and prompted me to change a few things (just a few, because every time I change somthing around, I take 2 steps back). Your information has been valuable and helpful. Thank you, thank you, thank you!
Bob

Adam October 2, 2012 at 2:40 am

Hi,

I have a Boss loop pedal, Boss tuner, Boss ME-50 multi-effects board and a Behringer Distortion pedal….can you suggest the best order for me (From Guitar to amp) ??

Thanks.

Dan Kern SSS October 5, 2012 at 2:23 pm

I would go Guitar > Tuner > Distortion -or- Multi-Effects > Looper > Amp. Experiment with the Distortion before/after ther Multi-Effects unit since I’m not familiar with it…but I imagine it will have delay/modulation/reverb…which typically goes after distortion unless you’re looking for avant-garde tones. Experiment & have fun!

dejan October 10, 2012 at 5:02 pm

what chain is best for metal sound? tuner-whammy-wah-ts9 or tuner-wah-whammy-ts9 ??? i play peavey 6505 … other pedals are in fx loop…
thx a lot !

Dan Kern SSS December 31, 2012 at 7:23 am

I would go with Tuner > Wah > Whammy > TS9. However, the TS9 does not offer enough gain for metal, so you’ll want to look into a higher-gain distortion pedal of sorts. Having the wah pedal after the overdrive/distortion will give it more bite when both pedals are engaged together. With metal, that will be important to cut through the mix.

Keny Mc January 7, 2013 at 8:41 pm

Hello,

I am trying to firm up my pedal order, and a lot of the setups I’ve read are very similar in order. My question is concerning distortion. I use the distortion from my Marshall head, so it doesn’t fit in the middle of the chain where most say distortion pedals should go. Is there another direction I should go since my distortion is at the end of the chain?

Thanks!
Keny Mc
Dallas, Texas

Dan Kern SSS January 28, 2013 at 6:51 pm

If you’re using distortion from your amp, then you only need to worry about your time-based effects (delay, reverb, chorus, flanger). They should go in your effects loop.

Paul April 26, 2013 at 3:12 pm

“It is not always try and it and see or a matter of taste, there are rules of sonic and sound engineering, there is a better sound and although some might think a bad sound is cool or unique, it is more akin to slitting your speaker grill with a razor to get a fuzz tone, like in the early 60s)”

The above is the worst way to think about effect placement, along with the person who typed that being pretentious in the idea that due to his expierence, there is in fact only one way to place effects correctly. There is no correct placement, that is why guitar pedals are modular (so you can place them how you feel).

How beautiful or ugly a sound/tone is, is completely relatave

Garrett June 11, 2013 at 8:23 am

Sounds good. However, I run my volume pedal BEFORE my delays. That way I can use swell techniques. Otherwise, this’ll probably be my setup.

Paul June 22, 2013 at 4:40 am

Time passes and we live and learn. Essentially I find the basic “rule of dominance” to hold true on effects pedal order. “That which comes after will be the more dominant effect.”

What I have found on Phasers is, yes you can put them before, or after overdrive and gains, and it depends entirely on the pedal chemistry. MXRs are very good at sounding equally effective. Some do not. Some cannot handle the loop, and some hate gain into them. Depends on your pedals, amp and guitar…not to mention your touch and ability.

Vibe, for me (after many tries), probably sounds better into OD or gains and it yields a stronger OD or gain signal plus the Vibe will add a warble pulse into feedback at times which is major “Trower coolness.” Works just as well after. Hendrix used his after his Fuzz as the old fuzz could not handle a complex signal that modulated. These days our stuff is so much better.

Modulation lends the most variant pedal option confusion. Even to this day, after decades of using them, I still move my rig around a lot. Sometimes you just get bored with the same tones. Does not hurt to try things. You cannot hurt anything.

Modulation before gains can work, as well as after, and in the amp loop works as well providing the amp loop is the proper impedance and level. Amp gain on a phase (if you’re after that EVH thing) is going to sound better than a pedal gain.

It is all based upon two primary factors: the pedals you are using and how they react to your amp and guitar (some have their sweet spots). Of course, it depends on your personal style and taste. What might sound beautiful (with wide bandwidth) for some styles might be terrible for heavier music and so on. I work to configure my board to be versatile and able to range very diverse styles and modes.

Issues on Wahs, filters and harmonizers for me will always be before anything that muddles the signal. Only makes sense. The unit must divide and work on these frequencies, and it needs a clean robust signal to work with. Kick a new Whammy V (bypass now and polyphonic) on a 5th or a 4th below into some dirt and let me know when you get tired of playing those cool tones.

Volume pedal before delay, with a preference that delay and reverb be in the amp’s effects loop for the best fidelity. There is that weird red-headed step child called the Aqua Puss which likes into dirt or amp dirt.

joy amin August 6, 2013 at 4:16 am

hi,
i am using boss paddle like 1.Wah 2.volume padal 3.Equalizer 4.over drive 5.metal zone 6.compression sustainer 7.D.D3. 8.Reverb with Murshall CFX 30, could anybody tell me how can I arrange those effects properly?

Dan Kern Dan Kern August 21, 2013 at 8:00 am

Hi Joy, the order is up to you since you can get different tones by “breaking the rules” with arranging guitar pedals. However, how I would order your particular set of guitar effects is: Wah > Overdrive > Compressor > Metal Zone > Equalizer > Volume > DD3 > Reverb. Putting the compressor after overdrive makes it even juicer, and keeping it before the Metal Zone will keep hiss down. Putting the EQ after both dirt pedals will help you shape each of them differently, post-gain. Putting the Volume before delay and reverb will allow the delay trails and reverb ambiance to sustain onward after you kill the volume with the volume pedal.

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